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Zia Pueblo in New Mexico regard the sun as sacred. Their symbol, a circle with groups of rays pointing in four directions, is painted on ceremonial vases, used to introduce newborns to the sun; Four is a sacred number of the Zia, and can be found repeated in the points radiating from the circle. The number four is embodied in

Cognitive Biases
systematic deviations VS standard of rationality or good judgment
cognitive ("cold") bias - percept error
motivational ("hot") bias - intended

Name ////// Description
Ambiguity effect The tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown".

Anchoring or focalism The tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor", on one trait or piece of information when making decisions (usually the first piece of information acquired on that subject)

Anthropomorphism or personification The tendency to characterize animals, objects, and abstract concepts as possessing human-like traits, emotions, and intentions.

Attentional bias The tendency of our perception to be affected by our recurring thoughts.

Automation bias The tendency to depend excessively on automated systems which can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions.

Travis Syndrome Overestimating the significance of the present.[111] It is related to the enlightenment Idea of Progress and chronological snobbery with possibly an appeal to novelty logical fallacy being part of the bias.

Verbatim effect That the "gist" of what someone has said is better remembered than the verbatim wording.[112] This is because memories are representations, not exact copies.

Von Restorff effect That an item that sticks out is more likely to be remembered than other items[113]

Zeigarnik effect That uncompleted or interrupted tasks are remembered better than completed ones.

Common theoretical causes of some cognitive biases

Bounded rationality – limits on optimization and rationality

Prospect theory

Mental accounting

Adaptive bias – basing decisions on limited information and biasing them based on the costs of being wrong.

Attribute substitution – making a complex, difficult judgment by unconsciously substituting it by an easier judgment[114]

Attribution theory


Na´ve realism

Cognitive dissonance, and related:

Impression management

Memory Biases

In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many different types of memory biases, including:

Change bias: after an investment of effort in producing change, remembering one's past performance as more difficult than it actually was.[1]

Childhood amnesia: the retention of few memories from before the age of four.

Choice-supportive bias: remembering chosen options as having been better than rejected options (Mather, Shafir & Johnson, 2000)

Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for, interpret, or recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses.

Conservatism or Regressive bias: tendency to remember high values and high likelihoods/probabilities/frequencies lower than they actually were and low ones higher than they actually were. Based on the evidence, memories are not extreme enough.[2][3]

Consistency bias: incorrectly remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour.

Context effect: that cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories (e.g., recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa).

Cryptomnesia: a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken

for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a memory.[1] Egocentric bias: recalling the past in a self-serving manner, e.g., remembering one's exam grades as being better than they were, or remembering a caught fish as bigger than it really was.

Fading affect bias: a bias in which the emotion associated with unpleasant memories fades more quickly than the emotion associated with positive events.[4]

Generation effect (Self-generation effect): that self-generated information is remembered best. For instance, people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.

Gender differences in eyewitness memory: the tendency for a witness to remember more details about someone of the same gender.

Hindsight bias: the inclination to see past events as being predictable; also called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect.

Humor effect: that humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.

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